True animation (sequences of still images creating an illusion of motion):
Near-animation (either still image sequences that do not create an illusion of motion, or the capture of actual motion):
- Animation toys: phenikistoscopes, zoetropes, thaumatropes.
- Cameraless animation: drawn or painted on clear film, or scratched (and/or painted) on black film.
- Camera animation: video and film.
- Computer animation: generally output to video, film, or DVD, or used in gaming. See also Pedro Faria Lopes' article, The Pinscreen in the Era of the Digital Image for details on computer simulation of the classical pinscreen technique.
- Time-lapse (speeding up natural movement)
- Kinestasis (collage in time)
- Totalization (real movement creating synthetic form)
|Camera Animation Media:
- Cel (clear, frosted, paper cel)
- Cutouts (toplit)
- Pastel, changing a work of art (any media) repeatedly while it is under the camera
- Sand or other flat-appearing media (backlit or toplit)
- Clay-painting, toplit or backlit
- Pinscreen (3D object that gives 2D image)
- Puppet (stop-motion)
- Pixillation (stop-motion with people)
- 3D Clay
- Relief clay (toplit)